The three Rio Conventions—on Biodiversity, Climate Change and Desertification—were formed at the 1992 Earth Summit. While each stands on its own and resides in its own Secretariat, they are all closely linked and mutually dependent.
The Rio Conventions shares the common objective of contributing to the sustainable development goals of Agenda 21, the targets of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the Millenium Development Goals.
The UNFCCC sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. Its objectives are to stabilize greenhouse-gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change; to ensure that food production is not threatened; to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
The UNCCD aims to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective actions at all levels, supported by international co-operation and partnership arrangements, in the framework of an integrated approach which is consistent with Agenda 21, with a view to contributing to the achievements of sustainable development in affected areas.
The objectives of the CBD are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from commercial and other utilization of genetic resources. The agreement covers all ecosystems, species, and genetic resources.