1. Sustainability scenarios: covering green economy and business, climate change mitigation, finance, industry, benefit sharing, agriculture, forestry and tourism
The green economy delivers improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities.
The aim is an economy that is low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. The Kyoto Protocol of the UNFCCC established market mechanisms, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, to help stimulate green investment and help governments meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way.
2. Innovations: latest clean tech developments, research, entrepreneurs, new systems of working
To promote, facilitate and finance the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how, particularly to developing countries.
New technologies can also be inspired by natural processes – particularly in the pharmaceutical and agrifood industries. This is an area the CBD have highlighted as a major opportunity for business to work with the Conventions to protect Biodiversity.
3. Ecosystem services: clean water provision, natural disaster planning, nutrient cycling
Ecosystems Services are effectively what nature gives to us, for free. It provides clean air and water, enables us to produce food on land and harvest food from the seas. For example, Mangrove Forests can slow flood waters and provide vital habitats for a variety of flora and fauna.
We also derive personal benefits from nature, be it from relaxing on the beach, swimming in the sea, taking in breathtaking views and skiing down mountains. Ecosystems Services go to the very heart of the Rio Conventions.
4. Sustainable land and water management (also includes coastal and marine areas and climate change adaptation)
Desertification, land degradation and drought affect more than 2 billion people and the situation might worsen due to the unsustainable use of soil and water under present scenarios of climate change. The UNCCD has been working with the private sector around the world to develop strategies to cope with this growing problem.
The Oceans are also coming under threat. The CBD has highlighted threats to Biodiversity in the seas and diminishing fish stocks, while ocean acidification due to climate change presents challenges to marine life and those that rely on the sea for their livelihoods.
The UNCCD’s Sustainable Land Management Business Forum in 2011 is an example of a programme aimed at involving the private sector in long-term policy making and implementation.
5. Latest research
Scientific and technical research, observation and monitoring provide the baseline information and ideas for decision-taking and innovation.
Knowledge of those institutions and networks and sharing of data, information and results worldwide is critical for sustainable development.